INTELLIGENT DESIGN – ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE

FINE TUNED CHARACTERISTICS

 


OVERVIEW
FINE TUNED CHARACTERISTICS
     Fundamental Features (Forces)
     Strong Nuclear Force – No Hydrogen
     Strong Nuclear Force – Everything Becomes Hydrogen
     Gravity –Changes in Calculation
     Electromagnetic Forces
     Light – Velocity of
     Decay of Protons
     Biological Features
     Planetary Features
     Size of Earth
     VIDEO – Fine Ttuned Earth
     Radioactivity
     Rotation of the earth
     Tilt of the Earth – Seasons
     Thickness of Earth’s Crust:
     Ocean Depth
     Atmosphere
     Ozone Layer
     Earth’s Magnetic Field
     Astronomical Features
     Moon
     Speed of Earth’s Orbit
     Earth Distance to the Sun
     Sun – Type of Star
     Mass of the Sun
     Distance from Galactic Center
     Supernovae Eruptions
     Distances and Densities of Galaxies
SPECIALIZED FEATURES
     Water
     Oxygen
     Carbon Based Life
     Time
     Anthropic Principle
ANSWERING CRITICISM:
Reference

 

OVERVIEW

Looking at all the elements of creation, we observe fine-tuned characteristics specific to each design which enables us to see the creative hand behind the work of the creator.

The scientific principles that reveal that the universe is fine tuned also gives us the understanding that any small changes in any of the fundamental physical constants of the universe would result in the destruction of its overall structure. This would further prevent the existence of other elements that it relates to, thus making life, or the eco-system necessary for life, impossible.

The fine-tuned principles in our universe show the fingerprints of our Creator, allowing all creation to interact with each other in a working design of balance!

All the evidence of a finely tuned universe coincides with the Anthropic Principle – which is the observation that the physical universe is compatible with the conscious life that observes it.

The following fine-tuned characteristic examples simply reflect just a few of the known perfectly adjusted attributes that continue to make life possible in our universe. Many of these finely tuned characteristics also make it possible for other known scientific principles to function, which if just slightly adjusted would no longer work.

 

FINE TUNED CHARACTERISTICS

Fundamental Features (Forces)

The 4 fundamental forces known in physics are:

  1. Strong Nuclear Force – responsible for the force between 2 or more nucleons
  2. Weak Nuclear Force – responsible for radioactive decay in particles
  3. Electromagnetism – responsible for electric and magnetic field generation
  4. Gravity – responsible for the attraction between bodies in proportion to mass

Small calculated changes in any of the 4 fundamental forces would have detrimental effects on the physical universe; which if changed by a small fraction, would prevent life or other physical properties from existing.

 

Strong Nuclear Force – No Hydrogen

Force - Nuclear - StrongA slight increase in the strong nuclear force by 2% would bind all the dineutron and diproton, with nuclear fusion during the Big Bang (taking in consideration the Evolutionary Theory), all hydrogen would have been converted to helium in the beginning of the universe.

This would have prevented any water from forming in the universe or any stable stars to have been created by nuclear fusion.

 

Strong Nuclear Force – Everything Becomes Hydrogen

A slight decrease in the constant of the strong nuclear force during the big bang would have prevented protons from bonding with neutrons and everything in the universe would be hydrogen, No heavy elements would be able to be fused to create higher, heaver elements.

 

Gravity –Changes in Calculation

Gravity - PrinciplesGravity has a severe effect on everything in the universe from the formation of stars to the ability for organisms to move on a planet. The fact that gravity is just right for everything to cognitively work together shows it is like every other force, perfectly designed for the needs of life to exist in the universe.

If gravity was more intense, stars would collapse and burn hotter, rapidly and unstably.

Life could never exist on any planet due to the crushing weight gravity would produce.

If the intensity of gravity was significantly lower, star would be too cool to ignite for nuclear fusion, preventing life from ever forming, as there would be no light or heat in the universe.

Elements necessary for life would simply float off of planets no matter how massive, because gravity would not be able to hold it in place.

 

Electromagnetic Forces

Greater electromagnetic forces would cause chemical atomic bonding to become unstable and more massive.

Lesser electromagnetic force would cause chemical bonding insufficient for atoms to bond and would prevent life from existing.

Considering the electromagnetic to gravitational force ratio, if the ratio was slightly larger it would cause stars to be 40% larger, making them too hot. If the ratio was slightly less, it would cause stars to become 20% less massive, making them too cold for life.

 

Light – Velocity of

Light - VelocityIt is still a controversy among scientists what exactly would happen if the velocity of light was different.

It is believed by some that if it was increased too much, stars would be too luminous for life, and if it was reduced too much it would not be bright enough for heat or life on surrounding planets.

One thing is for certain that if the electromagnetic force carried by photons was not physically and mathematically balanced and compatible with the other fundamental forces or was changed by a few percent, life or material in the universe would be not be possible as the forces necessary for chemicals to bond would no longer work.

 

Decay of Protons

The decay rate of sub-atomic particles are absolutely critical for the existence and maintenance of matter. If protons decayed faster, the radiation that emanated from them would eradicate all life. If protons decayed by a certain % a slower rate, temperatures would not be sufficient.

 

Biological Features

Just one example of complete organic system that depends on fine tuned events to correspond systematically for their survival is found in the biological function of plant life.

Plants contain chlorophyll, and it performs a function so basic that we are absolutely dependent on it for our existence. It is produced by an extremely complex mechanism. The energy of the sun, combined with moisture, and nutrients from the atmosphere and soil, produce food for the plants and oxygen for the air. This process called photosynthesis is essential for plant life and by connection, animal and human life on the earth depend on it for their survival. Without the oxygen produced by plants, we’d have nothing to breathe in a short time. All organic life forms on the earth depend on this process. (Yet, according to evolutionists, this process is supposed to have evolved simultaneously at the same time with all other eukaryotic organisms that depends on this process for their survival.)

This is a good example when you consider the fact that animals function communally with other organisms that all have separate operating processes. Animals, plants and all life forms have functions, that everything had to happen simultaneously at the same time to benefit one another that just so happened by chance to begin working together at the same time form the same original cells.

 

Planetary Features

Size of Earth

Earth - Tuned - FineGravity and the size of planets in general are absolutely critical for the support of life. In a universe where planets formed as big as Jupiter or larger, gravity would have crushed any organism or prevented anything from forming on the surface.

Changes in the size of the earth would also vary the density of the atmosphere causing severe warmer or cooler temperatures to oppose life on earth, along with many other features reliant on the earth’s size.

 

Radioactivity

The core of the earth produces heat; it is produced at a specific rate needed to keep the earth balanced for the living organisms on it. The size of the planet helps determine the rate it is able to produce this geothermic property, otherwise it would have cooled to a rock long ago.

 

Rotation of the earth

The earth rotates approx. 1k mi/hr which results in proper sunlight distribution, if just sped up or slowed by a factor of 10, the earth would become too hot or cold because of uneven distribution on the suns light. Estimates would show nights be as cold as -240 below 0, and heated to beyond scorching desert heat.

 

Tilt of the Earth – Seasons

The earth has a tilt preventing any part from becoming too cold or hot as it orbits the sun.

Other planets typically have extreme tilts.

Earth spins 23% off its axis, with a very small deviation from the oscillation of the earth axis spin- it oscillates 3% from the 23 degrees down then back up with great accuracy.

Over a specified period of time, it is estimated that if the earth was to oscillate less than 3% from its current average, the sun would consistently strike the ocean superheating it to evaporation leaving the earth bare with a molten equator and 2 polar ice caps, or if it became greater than 3% it is estimated to cause the ice caps to melt causing the oceans to rise to a level that would absorbs all carbon dioxide and destroy the atmospheric balance and organisms on earth.

 

Thickness of Earth’s Crust

Crust - EarthNot only are the earth’s oceans precisely the right depth but the earth’s crust is the right thickness to maintain the balanced procedure necessary to maintain many of the earth’s natural cycles.

If the earth’s crust was over 10 feet thinker or was composed of more iron, it would have absorbed all the earth’s oxygen and imbalance the atmospheric cycles.

10 feet more solid matter on the earth’s crust in relation to 4000 miles in radius. 10 feet makes the difference between life and death.

If the earth’s crust was thinner tectonic plates would continually move causing earthquakes without cease throughout the entire earth.

 

Ocean Depth

Water, specifically found in liquid state is an extremely rare occurrence in space or on any other planets. In fact earth is the only known place for its existence.

The oceans depth has been calculated to be in balanced with the rest of the earth’s cycles and quantities of the other elements on the earth.

One of the former presidents of the American Academy of Sciences said that if the earth’s oceans had been just a little deeper when the earth began, it would have absorbed the atmosphere of the oxygen and carbon dioxide at that time. Even today it is known that if the oceans where deeper, all the carbon dioxide would be absorbed, which would in turn destroying plants and the remaining creatures in the life cycle.

The atmosphere we breathe is made up of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% trace elements–Just the exact combination for human life, and carbon based life forms, to prosper, thrive and interact with each other. Without it, life would have never begun or been able to continue at all.

Therefore the earth’s oceans are just the right depths in proportion to the atmosphere in order for life to exist.

 

Atmosphere

Earths - AtmosphereThe atmosphere contains specific quantities of gases to form a habitable ozone layer which traps other beneficial gases while simultaneously also containing the right mixture for life to exist:

  • 78% nitrogen,
  • 21% oxygen,
  • 1% argon and carbon dioxide.

Without the % of nitrogen to blanket the amount of oxygen needed for life, the atmosphere would burn up.

Oxygen is always found on other plants in very small amount, yet on earth it is an overabundance, and fills 21% of our atmosphere. ¾ of our atmosphere is non-reactive or inert gases (Argon and Nitrogen). This unique quantity of inert gases prevents them from entering into very many chemical reaction with other gases, and doesn’t readily combine with oxygen.

In which case, if nitrogen did combine easily with oxygen in our atmosphere, our ocean would become a pool of nitric acid.

 

Ozone Layer

Ozone (O3) shields ultraviolet light. If our oxygen content was lowered it would not only cause respiration problems for all life forms, but it would decrease the amount of ozone gas in the atmosphere allowing deadly radiation to penetrate the atmosphere, destroying all life on earth.

 

Earth’s Magnetic Field

The Earth’s magnetic field acts as a shield protecting the earth from the sun deadly radiation rays. Without its strength and specific intensity; all water on earth and the atmosphere would have simply been blown away from the solar winds, ending up like every other desolate planet in our solar system.

Calculation of the Earth’s magnetic field reveal that if it was too much more intense, it would cause too much heat and friction on the surface of the earth for life to exist. If it was decreased by a certain percentage, it would, once again, not be able to prevent solar radiation from devastating life on earth.

 

Astronomical Features

 

Moon

The distance between the earth and the moon keeps a peaceful ocean tide. If the moon was too much closer, the oceans tides would cover the entire surface of the earth. The moon also acts as a shield for the earth from external asteroids and meteorites.

If our moon were to orbit closer, the increased gravitational pull would cause the lower regions of the earth to become flooded, and the tide would erode the landmasses until finally the mountains would crumble into the sea. The distance of the moon is at a perfect distance for the earth.

The fact that we have only 1 moon is a critical factor for life to exist on earth. Additional moons could potentially destroy the current balance in tidal changes, and corrupt the elliptical orbital balance of the earth around the sun. If the earth had two moons, they could eventually collide causing absolute catastrophe on the earth.

 

Speed of Earth’s Orbit

Earth - OrbitThe Earth is moving around the sun in an elliptical orbit at just the right speed--Not a circular orbit but an elliptical orbit. We are spinning through space around this elliptical orbit at the rate of 18 miles per second.

This is just the right speed for even distribution of heat for life to exist on earth.

Calculations reveal that if the earth slowed just a couple of miles per second we would be pulled into the sun and burned to a crisp. Or if we increased our speed, we would freeze to death.

 

Earth Distance to the Sun

The Distance of the earth to the sun is 75 – 150 Million miles. This provides the perfectly critical, habitable temperature zone not only for liquid water but for life to form and remain consistent in necessary cycles for life. Organic elements cannot function or reproduce in any way except within a small temperature window range:

Approx. -30degrees F (34C) 250 degrees F (121C)

If the earth where just a few million miles away from the sun (a change in simply 1-2% distance) the earth would become too cold for life. If the earth where just a few million miles closer to the sun (another change in just 1-2% of its distance), it would become too hot for life to exist.

 

Sun – Type of Star

Our sun is classified as a ‘main sequence star,’ in the Class G Spectrum. This along with a few other features means that our star is a stable star with sufficient luminosity for the earth, and also represents a very small number of star types found in the galaxy.

The diameter of the sun is critical for the existence of our solar systems properties. Other stars observed in the galaxy emit random burst of radiation and solar flares that would affect or destroy life on inhabitable planets.

 

Mass of the Sun

Our sun is also the right mass. If it was larger, its brightness would change too quickly and there would be too much high energy radiation.

If it was smaller, the range of planetary distances able to support life would be too narrow; this would make the inhabitable zone for the sun so close to the star, that tidal forces would disrupt the planet’s rotational period. UV radiation would also be inadequate for photosynthesis along with a great deal of other problems.

 

Distance from Galactic Center

Galactic CenterThe Earth receives very little x-rays and gamma rays and mass particle disruption from the galactic center which are consistently fed throughout the inner parts of the galaxy, this would drastically affect all life on earth.

The density of our part of the galaxy is very low (meaning there are fewer planets and systems close to us); this prevents the possibility for collisions with other astrologic bodies that are a part of our galaxy. Collisions become much more probable within the denser parts of the galaxy.

Our solar system exists in the optimal part of the galaxy for the existence of life.

 

Supernovae Eruptions
If supernova’s eruptions were too close, too frequent, or too late the radiation caused by them would result in the exterminate life on inhabitable planets.
If supernova’s where too distant too infrequent, or too soon, from an evolutionists perspective, the heavy elements they produce, necessary for planets to form, would be too spread out and too distant form each other.

 

Distances and Densities of Galaxies

If galaxies where too close together, it is calculated that they would cause severe gravitational disruptions on the stars and planets within each galaxy.

If Galaxies where more dense, then all the material within the galaxies would cause severe gravitational pulls and disruptions on each other, theoretically causing catastrophes like planets being pulled out of their system, stars being pulled into each other, galactic materials being swept into black holes, etc..

 

 

SPECIALIZED FEATURES

Not only are there specifications to keep our universe finely tuned for life, but within these specifications, there are many physical features that are finely tuned and specialized for the function of maintaining the balance for life to continue its existence.

 

Water

Ice expands when frozen and is 9% less dense then water. It is the only non-metallic substance that expands when frozen due to hydrogen bonding and floats to the surface. The density of ice is .9167 g/cm3 at 0oC. If ice did not do this, living organisms would not be able to survive in the ocean and other bodies of water as they would freeze from the bottom up, killing and trapping all aquatic organisms. It also would freeze more readily, and thaw much more slowly as we observe in every other substance.

In reference to an evolutionary theory, water without proper insulation from a top layer of ice would not have allowed the first organisms of live to survive as radiation from an early non-ozone atmosphere would have destroyed every living thing. Even at the equator, life in the early stages (over 3 billion years ago) needed this as the suns radiation would have destroyed all organic matter.

The special design of water and its high versatility seems to be an enhanced feature specialized for life to exist.

 

Oxygen

Living cells need energy to function. Oxygen is carried to the cells in our bodies through a process called oxidative respiration by our circulatory system (blood). Blood also works in removing the waste product (Carbon dioxide) which is eliminated through our lungs.

It is well conceived that any eukaryotic (multi-cellular) living organism to ever exist would need some sort of transportation (circulatory) system for its body to transport energy for its cells.

Oxygen has been estimated to be the most sufficient element to accommodate any circulatory system and most efficient source of energy for cellular life.

Red blood cells act to carry the oxygen from our respiratory system and act as this transporter for our circulatory systems. Research shows there is no other element that is as efficient as oxygen to be this extremely sufficient in carrying nutrients and other compounds for the circulatory system of a creature to function.

Oxygen is truly a highly versatile and specialized element used to create some of the most complex piece of engineering in any living organisms, the respiratory and circulatory systems.

 

Carbon Based Life

Carbon is one of the most unique atoms in all of chemistry. Carbon is the 6th most abundant element in the universe; over 1.7 Million combinations are known to organic chemists.

The carbon atom is the only element that can link up to 70 atoms in a chain, which is unique when considering the 2nd longest atomic chain which is silicon, which can only form up to 6 links. Its chains are not linear but in many cases are branched forming polygons which give it its extreme versatility, unlike any other element.

This is why we find that even if the same amount of carbon atoms form a molecular chain, it can be two different chains, resulting in two completely different substances.

Atom - Carbon

Carbon:
Atomic Number 6
  # of Protons- 6
  # of Electrons- 6
  # of Neutrons- 6 (in carbon -12)
  Atomic Mass Average: 12.011
  Melting Point: 3823 K (3550°C
  or 6422°F)
  Boiling Point: 4098 K (3825°C
  or 6917°F)
  Density: 2.267g/cu.cm.Chains - Carbon
  Velocity of sound [/m s-1]:18350
  Hardness Scale Mohs: 0.5
 Stable Isomers (2)
 

 All life on earth is attributed to the wonderfully created diversity of the carbon atom, of which, if it was not for it versatility and ability to create so many different types of molecular chains, life would not have been able to form.

 

Time

Based on the Evolutionary theory the universe is billions of years old, the additional factor of time has a critical role in how our physical universe effects life.

The perfect timing of when the earth gained the necessary random reactions and chemicals necessary and properly timed for life is critically important. The perfect timing of the atmosphere and global temperatures necessary for life, not to mention all the other critical factors for life available on the earth, etc.

i.e. it is highly improbable that, even  if Evolution was true, all the conditions would be perfect in place at the right time for every organisms to come into existence. Features such as the distance of the Earth from the Sun (just the right temperature), atmospheric pressures and compositions would be perfect at just the right time (ammonia at first then oxygen), enough organisms evolved in just the right sequence to keep a balance between each other ecologically, etc.

 

 

Anthropic Principle

It is quite interesting to take all these fine tuned characteristic into consideration and realize that, out of the billions of things that exist, and the billions of possibilities, there is only some being that is able not only to comprehend it own existence, but is able to contemplate its own existence amidst it all.

There is only one being able to study and rationalize the design of not only the universe, but his own existence.

Only the sentient, intelligence beings in this universe are able to even comprehend the way the universe works, only mankind is able to realize this.

From the edible fruits, herbs and vegetables, to the available resources, and everything that exists in our world; The existence of all matter or even the usefulness of it can only be enjoyed or understood by one being- the sentient intelligent being- mankind.

We are able to observe the very limits of our reality, form the edges of the universe to the limited space of molecules.

It would seem that everything in the universe, beginning with the sub-atomic universe that is used as building block to form system larger and larger then itself, all working together to make something more and more complex then itself to come to ‘life’.

Then looking at the comic galaxies, the solar system, to the planet, looking down they all exist to be the dwelling place and habitation for something smaller.

Anthropic Principle

Then as we look at mankind, whom is in the very center, able to look both ways as this awesome creatively design universe, so we may understand there is a Creator waiting for us.

This universe was created as a dwelling place for mankind.

 

 

ANSWERING CRITICISM

Critics say:

The universe is not fine-tuned to life; life is fine-tuned to the universe. i.e. over time, due to  the natural laws or random events in the universe, organic life evolved into a state of balance on their own and all organisms evolved to naturally fit the conditions of the laws of physics.

Or Critics Say:

Life evolved into its surrounding conditions

Answer:

Natural systems are too well organized to work together to simply have happened by chance. One anomaly of the earth being at the perfect distance from the sun is improbably enough, but having a perfect balancing act of an ammonia atmosphere changing into an oxygen atmosphere at the perfect timing that organisms where forming is evidence of design not random chance, not to mention hundreds of other simultaneous events critical for life to exist.

One factor also remains that these fine-tuned attributes remain constant, they don’t change. Even if life evolved “into” these attributes, the fact still remains that these well balanced systems remain ‘intact’ and ‘in tune’ as needed for life to exist and continue to exist.

i.e. If all of a sudden ice from a comet hit the earth and added an extreme amount of water to the oceans, it would absorb all carbon on the earth and kill all life (oceans are at the perfect depth). If the earth drifted away from the sun too much it would become an ice ball. If the earth magnetic field lost its stability, the suns radiation would devastate life.

Critics say

(Barrow & Tipler) We should not be surprised that we do not observe features of the universe incompatible with our own existence, for if features were incompatible, we would not be here to notice it, so no explanation is needed.

Answer:

Existing creatures do not prove their own existence by simply being. As we observe, everything in this universe needs to have its own set of beginning conditions which are based on other previous conditions in order to exist, we know that an explanation is needed for situation that supersede this basic understanding.

  • i.e. A self-aware computer program could not prove its existence by anything inside of its virtual world. All of its programming and ‘laws’ where written outside of the computer by a human.
  • It would be an inadequate to ask the computer program “how did you come into existence,” and have it respond “if I didn’t, I wouldn’t be here to answer you.”

Critics Say:

All states of affairs are highly improbable; therefore every individual state of affairs is a “miracle”.

Or in other word “everything that exists is a miracle, therefore there are NO miracles.”

Answer:

This is completely an incorrect statement. The probability that the suns nuclear fusion will continue is roughly 1:1 odds, due to the fact that all the mechanisms are in place for it to continue. The chances that a baby is going to form from two haploid cells is roughly 1:1, odds, provided all the mechanisms are in place. The odds that a monkey will random type just one page of a Shakespearian playbook is (with just 100 characters) 1: 8x10142.

Now it is true that a person is a miracle, with over 100M (meaning you have a 1:1x108 chance of being born) sperm possibilities to fertilize an egg, but the chance of one of the sperm reaching that egg is roughly a 1:1 odds.

 

Reference

http://www.sbc.net/knowjesus/faqs.asp

http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/1997/05/10/universe-finely-tuned

http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/designun.html

http://www.icr.org/article/planet-earth-plan-or-accident/

http://www.icr.org/article/design-nature-anthropic-principle/