**EVIDENCE FOR A YOUNG EARTH – THE MOON**

**The Moon is Receding**

The Moon recedes from the Earth 4cm per year, thus calculating backwards and assuming a uniformity in its annual receding, the moon could not be more than 750 million years old.

**Receding Moon & Gravitational Pull**

The moon fluctuates between 225,622 to 252,088 miles away from the earth, calculated from the center of the earth to the center of the moon. The difference is due to the eccentricity of the Moon’s orbit.Tidal friction between the water on the Earth’s surface adds energy to the propulsion of the Moon on its elliptical orbit around the earth, known as the ‘Conservation of Angular Momentum.’The Earth’s rotational angular momentum and the Moon’s angular momentum has to be conserved as they rotate around one another.

The Moon induced tides on the Earth, and this slowly dissipates the Earth’s rotational energy, resulting in the days on the Earth becoming slightly longer from the tides energy loss. The Moon also takes up the lost momentum of the Earth’s rotation by moving slightly farther away from the Earth.

**Gravity & Tides**

Gravity causes the Moon to be attracted to the Earth, and it pulls on its surface to keeps this attraction. The Earth’s gravity is able to keep everything in place except whatever has a low friction, like water, which is constantly moving.

The Moons gravity pulls up the waters causing the tides on Earth. The highest recorded tides on Earth are from the Bay of Fundy, recorded as high as 53 feet.

A tide is a periodic rise or fall in a body of water; On Earth we see this mainly in our oceans. Everyday there are 2 high tides and 2 low tides.

We have recorded a recession rate of the Moon form the Earth to be 4cm (1.5 inches) per year due to this tidal friction, and according to the laws of physics, would have been accelerated in the past the closer the Moon was to the Earth.

“One cannot extrapolate the present 4 cm/year separation rate back into history. It has that value today, but was more rapid in the past because of tidal effects. In fact, the separation rate depends on the distance to the 6^{th} power, a very strong dependence … the rate … was perhaps 20 m/year ‘long’ ago, and the average is 1.2 m/year”

– Physicist Donald DeYoung

This quote is from the book entitled “Who Built the Moon?” by Christopher Knight and Alan Butler:

“There is no possible relationship between the relative size of the Earth and the Moon and their orbital characteristics, yet the numbers are the same. And that was just the first of many such patterns….

The number 366 was the basis of the ancient measuring system we have reconstructed, and that number keeps popping up along with a small group of round numbers such as 400 and 10,000. For example, the Moon is 400 times closer to the Earth than the Sun and exactly 400 times smaller than the Sun. And in 366 orbits of the Moon, the Earth experiences 10,000 days.”

– Christopher Knight

In response to the book “Who built the Moon?” Tim Wildmon argues and quotes information that would be intriguing to mathematic inquisitors:

*“Knight and **Butler**, then noticed some very odd mathematical relationships between the size of the Moon, Earth and Sun. The orbital characteristics of the Moon and Earth, they say, are unlikely to exist by chance alone. For example, the Earth revolves 366 times in one orbit of the Sun and the Earth is 366% larger than the Moon. Conversely, the Moon takes 27.32 days to orbit the Earth and is 27.32% of the Earth’s size”*

* – Tim Wildmon*

The following calculations used to determine the gravitational relationship between the Earth and Moon, which lies basically on only the laws of gravity and one of the undisputed experimentally repeated measurement.* *

*These forces will in effect cause the Moon to spiral away from the Earth; we will examine the length of time allowed for these events to have happened.*

**Lunar Crisis**

The Moon poses a big problem for Evolutionists. Evolutionists know that the calculation to determine where the moon was in relation to the earth hundreds of millions of years ago puts it too close to the earth to allow life to be possible.

If the Moon began orbiting near the Earth within an approximation of 10k miles, it would move to its current position in only approx. 1.2 billion years; with the assumption that any theory would allow for the Moon to start off being this close to the Earth!

This would cause the tides of the earth to be approx. 8 miles above the surface, which is 2.5 miles above Mt. Everest.

**Calculating The Lunar Recession**

The Moons gravity attracts every part of the Earth slightly different, as you will see in figure 1.

In area A, this part of the Earth is closest to the Moon therefore it is pulled with the most force. Area B is pulled with slightly less force, and Area C is pulled with the least amount of force. Area A bulges from the strong pull of the Moon (creating the near tide), while C is bulging to area B, being pulled away from it (creating the far tide).

**Figure 1.**

Reason for the tides on the Earth

**Relation between the tides with the Earth – Moon Separation**

Newton’s Law determines that the Moon’s gravitational pull on the Earth’s center of mass (C) with a force proportional to 1/R^{2}.

Area A which is closest to the Moon by one Earth radius (r) thus is pulled by the force proportional to 1/(R-r)^{ 2}.

The difference between these forces is determined:

The differential force that produces the tides, and the height of the tides is proportional to the formula:

Using this formula we determine that the ocean tides height is proportional to 1/R^{3}.

**Effects of the Moon’s orbit on the Earth’s spin rate**

The Earth’s radius (r) is constant, we can conclude that the height of the tides is proportional to 1/R^{3}. For example, if the Earth-Moon distance suddenly doubled, tides caused by the Moon would be only 1/8 as high.

**How do the tides affect the Moon’s orbit and the Earth’s spin rate? **

The Earth, as seen below in figure 2 describes how the gravitational forces between the Earth and the Moon cause the Moon to slowly slip away.

Looking at G_{s} you will find that it is centered with the Earth and Moon, which doesn’t alter the Moon’s orbit. However, because it is offset, the Moon pulls in a direction shown by G_{n}, with a tangential component F_{n}, in the direction of the Moon’s orbital.

F_{n} accelerates the Moon in the moving direction, causing the orbit to become increasingly larger with each pass. The far tide has an opposite but weaker effect because it is further from the gravitational pull of the Moon, producing the gravitational force G_{f}. The net strength of the accelerating force is (F_{n} – F_{f}).

You will find that the current recession rate is 3.82 cm/Yr, but was once much faster. This force on the Earth’s tidal bulges also worked to create equal and opposite force on how fast the Earth spins, thus indicating the Earth used to spin much faster.

Figure 2. Orbital Rotation and tidal bulges.

**Accelerating Forces relation to the Earth – Moon separation**

Y = the misalignments of the tidal bulge

m = moons mass

m_{b } = mass of each tidal bulge

G = Gravitational constant

M = Mass of a central body (earths mass)

*Equation 1: a, b*

Equation 1b showed that the mass of a tidal bulge, m_{b}, is approximately proportional to 1/R^{3}, that is

C_{1} is the constant of proportionality, Thus

*Equation 2.*

The velocity of a circular orbiting body (a.k.a the Moon) is

The Moon’s tangential acceleration, , is equal to , which is known from equation 2

*Equation 3.*

The slight displacement of the tidal bulge (y), as mentioned earlier, is proportional to the difference in the Earth’s spin rate (w) and the Moon’s angular velocity (w_{L}). In other words,

*Equation 4.*

Substituting (4) into (3) and replacing the product of all constants by C gives

*Equation 5.*

C is found by using today’s values (in subscript t)

*Equation 6.*

Kepler’s Third Law shows how (w – w_{L}) varies with R:

*Equation 7.*

Applying the Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum gives

*Equation 8.*

Where the constant L is the angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system, and P is Earth’s polar moment of inertia. Combining equation 7 and 8 gives

*Equation 9.*

Substituting equation 6, 7, and 8 gives us the final equation. It has no closed-form solution; it will be solved by numerical iteration. The steps begin by setting the clock to zero and R to its present value of 238,855 miles (384,400 km). Then time is stepped backwards in small increments (dt) until the centers of the Moon and Earth are only 9320 miles (15,000 km) apart.

If this would have actually happened, the Earth’s ocean tides would have steadily grown to a ridiculous 8 miles (12.8 km) high and left highly visible marks on Earth. But there is not any evidence to show this was a reality.

This gives 750 M – 1.2 Billion years as the absolute upper limit maximum for the age of the Moon. (If the Moon began moving away from Earth 1.2 billion years ago, the Earth would have rotated once every 4.9 hours.

**References**

*Center for Scientific Creation – **How Long Would It Take the Moon to Recede from Earth to Its Present Position*